Saturday, 2 June 2012

RWIZA News: URUGAMBA RWA NYUMA RW’INZIRABWOBA (Part.1)

RWIZA News
URUGAMBA RWA NYUMA RW'INZIRABWOBA (Part.1)
Jun 2nd 2012, 23:00

URUGAMBA RWA NYUMA RW'INZIRABWOBA (Part.1) 276666_244557768916464_80269844_n

Iki n'ikimenyetso cyarangaga Ingabo z'Igihugu (Armée Rwandaise)

IRIBURIRO

Twagerageje kwegeranya amakuru ku rugamba rwa nyuma rw'Inzirabwoba, ariko twasaba abandi baba bafite amakuru kuba badufasha kubona amakuru y'urugamba rwo muri 1994, kugirango bibe byadufasha mu myandikire y'igitabo turimo gutegura.
Icyiciro cya mbere ni iyi nyandiko yo gusogongeza abasomyi kugira ngo umuntu ashobore kubona amakuru n'inama z'abazasoma iyi nyandiko. Nyuma hazakurikiraho kuganira n'abantu bamwe mu barwanye iyi ntambara kugira ngo bifashe gukosora ahari amakosa no kugirango haboneke amakuru y'umwimerere. Ntabwo twashatse kwandika iyi nkuru nk'uko ubundi ibitabo byandikwa kuko ikiri agateganyo.

Iyi nyandiko ni nko gusogongeza abasomyi kuri icyo gitabo, tugasaba aba babona hari ahari amakosa cyangwa hari ibyavuzwe atari byo, kudufasha mu buryo busobanuye neza tukamenya ukuri nyako kw'iyi ntambara.
Iyi ntambara yari intambara mbi cyane yarimo ibyaha byinshi ndengakamere ndetse yarimo ubugome bukabije ku buryo nta mfungwa z'intambara zigeze zigaragara irangiye.

 

I.IMPAMVU INZIRABWOBA ZATSINZWE INTAMBARA

 

1.Kwinjira muri Politique y'amashyaka menshi mu buryo buhubukiwe kandi igihugu kiri mu ntambara

Amashyaka agitangira byateye akajagari mu gihugu: imyigaragambyo, amagambo yo guca intege ingabo z'igihugu, byateye discipline nkeya mu gisirikare, ku buryo abayobozi b'ingabo byabagoraga gukurikirana discipline.

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Bamwe mu banyapolitiki bafataga intsinzi y'Inzirabwoba nk'iya Perezida Habyalimana ku giti cye

Byari byoroshye ko umusirikare avuga ko yahanwe kubera ko avuka mu karere aka n'aka, bakamureka ngo bititwa ko bamurenganije ngo kuko atavuka mu majyaruguru.

Abanyapolitike bari muri gouvernement kandi bakorera uwo bitwa ko barwanaga nawe . Ibinyamakuru byakoreraga FPR ku mugaragaro bikumvisha abasirikare ko kurwana ari ukurwanirira Président Habyarimana cyangwa ko intambara ireba abo mu majyaruguru gusa (hari n'abavugaga ngo bazarwana intambara igeze iwabo).

Abanyapolitike bashakaga ubutegetsi batitaye ku ngaruka zizaza nyuma: Nabaha ingero zimwe na zimwe kuko ingero z'ibyo abo banyapolitike bakoze ntawazirondora ngo abirangize:

Nsengiyaremye Dismas yemereye FPR ko abasirikare b'abafaransa bava mu Rwanda kugirango nawe FPR izamwemere nka Ministre w'intebe wa gouvernement izava mu masezerano ya Arusha. Ibyo byababaje kandi bitungura abafaransa cyane kuko babibamenyesheje byararangije kwemezwa. Byateye ingaruka zatumye n'abafaransa bamaze kuva mu Rwanda batarongeye gufasha u Rwanda mu rwego rwa gisirikare. Ntawe uzibagirwa amagambo yavuzwe n'uwo mugabo wari warize ibyo kuvura amatungo aho yavuze ko abasirikare b'Inzirabwoba bazabaha amasuka bagashoka ibishanga. Ibyo byatesheje morali abasirikare benshi bumvaga ko ntacyo barwanira.

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Marc Rugenera wari Ministre w'Imali yanze ko hagurwa ibikoresho bya gisirikare mu 1994

Rugenera Marc yanze ko hagurwa amasasu n'ibindi bikoresho muri Mutarama 1994 avuga ko intambara yarangiye, ku buryo intambara yubura nta masasu Inzirabwoba zari zifite ahagije, biri mu mpamvu nyamukuru yatumye FPR itsinda intambara, (imbunda ziremereye nka za 105mm howitzer, 122mm howitzer n'izindi zagiye kubikwa i Muramba ku Gisenyi kubera kubura amasasu), gutinza imishahara y'abasirikare ku bushake kugirango batakaze moral, kwanga ko hinjira abasirikare bashya bo gusimbura abirukanywe, abakomeretse n'abatorotse urugamba n'ibindi.

Ngulinzira Boniface, Gasana Anastase n'abandi babaga bahagarariye Leta y'u Rwanda mu mishyikirano ariko ubona bashishikajwe no kwemera ibyo FPR ishaka byose batitaye ku banyarwanda muri rusange.

Imyitwarire y'abanyapolitike bamwe na bamwe batekerezaga ko itsindwa ry'Inzirabwoba ari ugutsindwa kwa Président Habyarimana wenyine. Bakibwira ko intambara itabareba. Ariko nyuma abo FPR itishe cyangwa ngo ifunge barahunze.

 

 

2.Uruhare rw'amahanga

Amahanga yashyize igitutu kuri gouvernement y'u Rwanda cyane, ntibashaka kumva ikibazo uko kimeze ahubwo bakumva ko Leta y'u Rwanda ari igitugu, ntibashake kubuza Uganda gukomeza gufasha FPR no gutera u Rwanda.

Byaraterwaga akenshi n'uko abashyigikiye FPR bakoraga uko bashoboye bagakora Propagande ihagije, mu gihe uruhande rwa leta y'u Rwanda diplomasi yari nke kandi iri mu maboko ya MDR yari ishishikajwe no kurwanya Président Habyarimana aho kurwanya FPR.

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Amahanga yafashije FPR yari agamije kubona inzira yo gukuraho Perezida Mobutu wari inshuti ya Perezida Habyalimana

Ibihugu by'aba Anglo-saxons (Canada, England, USA, n'ibindi) n'ibihugu by'Afrika bivuga icyongereza byari bishyigikiye FPR kubera impamvu z'ururimi n'amateka ya bamwe mu bayobozi ba FPR bari barakoranye nabyo (Uganda yo kuyitandukanya na FPR byari biruhije bari bamwe, Tanzania yo yarumaga ihuha ku buryo mu rupfu rwa Président Habyarimana ntawayishira amakenga ndetse n'ukuntu impunzi z'abanyarwanda zirukanywe nabyo byerekanye aho yari ibogamiye, ..)

Ububiligi bwo abanyapolitiki baho ntabwo bavugaga rumwe ku kibazo cy'u Rwanda no mu ngabo zabo zoherejwe muri MINUAR niko byari bimeze, ariko igice cyari gishyigikiye FPR nicyo cyari gifite ingufu, byaje guhuhurwa n'urupfu rw'abasirikare b'ababiligi, na propagande y'abashyigikiye FPR. Ibihugu byari bishyigikiye Leta y'u Rwanda byari bike.

Ubufaransa bwari bushyigikiye Leta y'u Rwanda ariko kwirukanwa kw'abasirikare babo byarababaje cyane, Zaïre ya Mobutu yo nayo yari ishyigikiye u Rwanda ariko ubutegetsi bwaho bwarajegajegaga. Ibyo bihugu byaje kugwa mu mutego wa FPR yakwije ikinyoma ikimara guhanura indege ya Président Habyarimana ko yahanuwe na aba FAR batashakaga amasezerano ya Arusha. Abari inshuti za Président Habyarimana batereranye u Rwanda.

FPR yari yemeje ibihugu biyishyigikiye ko ihita ifata umujyi wa Kigali mu gihe gito, ariko byaje kuyinanira, noneho ibihugu byari biyishyigikiye byigira inama yo gushyiraho Embargo ku ntwaro bikoresheje ONU. FPR yakomeje kubona intwaro ziciye i Bugande, ndetse n'ingabo za Uganda yafashaga FPR cyane cyane mu rwego rw'imbunda zirasa kure (artillerie Lourde).

Zaïre ya Mobutu yahemukiye Inzirabwoba cyane kuko iyo iziha uburyo bwo kubona amasasu n'imbunda ku buryo buhagije nk'uko Uganda yabikoreraga FPR yari kuba izifashije cyane nayo itiretse.

Intambara yo mu Rwanda kuri FPR yari ugufata ubutegetsi mu Rwanda, ariko ibihugu byafashije FPR cyane bishaka gukuraho Mobutu no kubona uburyo bigera muri Congo ngo byisahurire. Ibi bishatse kuvuga ko imishyikirano yakorwaga Arusha ntacyo yashoboraga kugeraho. Iyo umuntu yitegereje ibikoresho ingabo za FPR zari zifite, amabombes zarasaga buri munsi, ntabwo amafaranga yo kugura ibyo bikoresho byose yari kuva mu misanzu y'abanyarwanda b'impunzi n'abandi bari bayishyigikiye mu gihugu!

Bigaragare ko hari abatangaga amafaranga cyangwa ibyo bikoresho, bagafasha FPR kumvikanisha ibikorwa byayo mu mahanga, kubangamira abashakaga gutabara muri 1994, Embargo ku ntwaro yashyiriweho Inzirabwoba muri 1994, amakuru yacishwaga mu bitangazamakuru avuga ubwicanyi ku ruhande rumwe, kwirengagiza akaga impunzi z'abahutu zarimo n'ibindi byinshi byerekana ko FPR yari ishyigikiwe.

Ibi bishatse kuvuga ko iyo habaho ubwumvikane hakabaho amahoro abo bantu FPR kubishyura byari kuyigora, kandi u Rwanda ntabwo rwari kubona urwitwazo rwo gutera Zaïre ya Mobutu. Niyo mpamvu rero twavuga ko Inzirabwoba zarwanye n'inyungu z'amahanga kurusha uko zarwanye n'ingabo za FPR.

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Gen Roméo Dallaire ari mu bafashije FPR gufata ubutegetsi

GOMN (Groupe d'Obsérvateurs Militaires "Neutres") na MINUAR (Mission des Nations Unies pour l'Assistance au Rwanda) zabaye uburyo bwo kwinjiza ba Maneko ba FPR mu Rwanda ku mugaragaro, ndetse n'abari bagize GOMN na MINUAR abenshi bakoranaga na FPR.

Aha niho hagaragarira uruhare Karenzi Karake yagize mu gutuma FPR itsinda intambara, yashoboye kwinjira mu Rwanda noneho aba umuhuzabikorwa w'ibikorwa bya FPR mu gihugu imbere: Gukwiza Propagande ya FPR, Gushishikariza abana b'abatutsi n'abahutu bamwe na bamwe kujya mu nkotanyi, gutega ibisasu, kwica abantu bakoresheje imbunda cyangwa amarozi (Gatabazi, Gapyisi, Bucyana, Katumba, Rwambuka n'abandi..), gushaka ibyitso mu gisirikari no mu banyapolitike, kuneka uko Inzirabwoba zihagaze ku buryo inkotanyi zari zifite amakuru ahagije igihe zagabaga ibitero.

Nyuma haje kuza Général Dallaire wakomokaga muri Canada, we yaje wagira ngo yaje afite mission yo gushyira FPR ku butegetsi, nawe arabyivugira mu gitabo cye iyo ataka FPR na Kagame ahubwo abandi akabagira ruvumwa. Yafashije FPR mu ntambara ya 1994 cyane cyane mu kubanekera no kubaha amakuru ku Nzirabwoba, gushaka gucamo ibice Ubuyobozi bw'Inzirabwoba, ndetse no guha ibirindiro bya MINUAR inkotanyi zikabikoresha zirasa maze bazisubiza MINUAR ikavuza induru, kwicira abantu mu maso ya MINUAR ntigire icyo ivuga: urugero kuri Stade amahoro, Hotel Méridien n'ahandi.

 

3. Imiterere y'igisirikari n'abakiyoboraga

Abakuru b'ingabo abenshi bamaze mu myanya yabo imyaka myinshi ku buryo byagize ingaruka zitari nziza ku Nzirabwoba muri rusange.

Dufate urugero rw'uwari Chef d'Etat-major adjoint Colonel Serubuga yari yaragize igisirikare akarima ke ku buryo byatumye abasirikari benshi bakundaga igihugu bahinduka abarakare bitari ngombwa, hari ingeso yo guhakwa cyane no gutikura ku buryo umusirikari mwiza ari uwabaga uhakwa cyane cyangwa arebwa neza n'ibukuru.

Hari abasirikari benshi birukanwe mbere y'uko intambara itangira bazira ibintu by'amafuti kandi bari bakenewe mu ntambara. Nyuma haje politique y'amashyaka menshi ndetse n'abakuru b'ingabo barahindurwa, abasirikare bari baramenyereye guhakwa ku bakuru babo noneho bagiye guhakwa ku banyepolitiki kugeza n'aho batanga amabanga ya gisirikare.

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Perezida Habyalimana (avugira kuri micro), inyuma kuva ibumoso ugana iburyo Col Rwagafirira, Col Sagatwa, Lt Col Nsengiyumva, Col Serubuga, Gen Nsabimana, Col Rusatira

Kuba Inzirabwoba zitari zarahawe amasomo ahagije ya politiki kandi nyuma y'aho haziye amashyaka menshi ntizigire imitekerereze imwe kuri politiki y'igihugu byateye ingaruka nini kuko hari abasirikare bamwe bumviraga abakuru b'amashyaka kurusha kumvira abayobozi babo mu gisirikare.

Uburyo bwo guhana ibyaha na discipline nabyo biri mubyashegeshe Inzirabwoba. Umusirikare w'Inzirabwoba wakoraga amakosa kumuhana byari bigoye kubera ko nta nkiko zakoraga kandi Police Militaire nayo yari yatewe irimo kurwana, ku buryo abasirikare b'Inzirabwoba barwanye n'ababishakaga, hari bamwe rwose batigeze barwana kandi ntawagize icyo abatwara. Hari kandi abasirikare bahoraga mu mpushya zo kujya kureba imiryango yabo, abirwaza ngo batajya ku rugamba, wasangaga mu mijyi yari kure y'aho urugamba rwaberaga hari urujya n'uruza rw'abasirikare batagira icyo bakora. Ku buryo ku rugamba akenshi za Bataillon nyinshi zabaga ari nka ½ cy'abasirikare bazigize kandi ibyo bikorwa ntabwo byari mu basirikare bo hasi gusa no mu ba officiers benshi niko byari bimeze.

Hari n'ibindi bikorwa byatumaga igisirikare gita ingufu n'ubushobozi. Nabaha urugero: Hari ibyo bitaga "KUJYA ARUSHA", Arusha cyari cyarabaye nk'ikimenyetso cy'ubugambanyi no kwirira amafaranga y'ubusa. Kujya Arusha akenshi byavugwaga ku basirikare bamwe batangaga ruswa ngo batsinde ibizamini bimwe na bimwe byatumaga bagira ubuhanga runaka nko kubona Brevet Commando, Ikizami cyo kuba Sous-Officier, gushyirwa mu batajya ku rugamba n'ibindi..

 

4.Umutima mwiza wa Président Habyalimana

iyo Perezida Habyalimana aba umunyagitugu koko nk'uko byavugwaga n'abamurwanya, bariya banyapolitike bose bamurwanyaga ababa yarabishe akabamara cyangwa akabahimbira ibyaha akabafunga nk'uko Perezida Kagame abigenza, ibyo byari gutera ubwoba abandi, ndetse n'abirirwaga bakora propagande ya FPR ku mugaragaro cyangwa bakohereza abana babo mu nkotanyi ntabwo bari kubitinyuka. Ndetse na FPR kubona ibyitso mu gisirikare no banyapolitique byari kuyigora.

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Umutima mwiza wa Perezida Habyalimana uri mubyatumye bamwivugana ku buryo bworoshye

Président Habyarimana na leta y'u Rwanda bari bahangayikishijwe n'abakuwe mu byabo n'intambara muri Byumba na Ruhengeri bari umuzigo kuri leta, kandi bwari uburyo bworoshye kuri FPR mu gushyira igitutu kuri Leta y'u Rwanda ndetse no kubona abaturage bihishamo mu gucengera.

Mu gihe FPR yo nta baturage yari ifite bayihangayikishije, n'abatutsi bari mu Rwanda ntacyo bari bayibwiye ahubwo yifuzaga ko bagirirwa nabi kugira ngo ibone urwitwazo mu kubura imirwano n'uko yereka amahanga ko Leta irimo yica abantu.

Kuba Président Habyarimana atarakurikiranye FPR ku butaka bwa Uganda nabyo byagize ingaruka. Byananije abasirikare kuko FPR yahungiraga i Bugande ntibayikurikire, bakaraswa n'imbunda nini za Uganda.

Iyo Président Habyarimana aba gashoza ntambara nk'uko Perezida Kagame ameze ubu aba yarateye Uganda, ONU n'amahanga byari gukemura icyo kibazo nk'ikibazo k'ibihugu bibiri. Byari gutuma FPR itagira ingufu za politique nk'izo yari ifite icyo gihe kuko izo ngufu nizo yuririyeho igira andi mashyaka ya politiki ibikoresho igamije gufata ubutegetsi bwose yonyine.

Président Habyarimana n'abanyarwanda muri rusange bizeraga amahanga, bumvaga amahanga azagera aho akabona uko ibibazo by'u Rwanda bimeze nyabyo. Uko kwizera amahanga abanyarwanda bakomeje kukugira kugeza n'uyu munsi n'ubwo amahanga akomeje kwirengagiza. Umuntu yafata ingero ku kuntu FPR yishe abantu ifata ubutegetsi na nyuma yaho amahanga akirengagiza, ukuntu FPR yishe abantu i Kibeho hari na MINUAR, Ubwicanyi bwo muri Congo, kugeza ku banyapolitiki bakomeje guhohoterwa ndetse bakanafungwa ariko ntacyo amahanga avuga.

Leta ya Perezida Habyalimana ntabwo yashatse kumarira umutungo w'igihugu mu kugura intwaro cyangwa kwitegura intambara, u Rwanda ruri mu bihugu bike by'Afrika abakozi n'abasirikare bahembwaga neza kandi bagahemberwa igihe.

 

5.Urupfu rwa Président Habyarimana

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Uwari Perezida Pasteur Bizimungu arunguruka ibishwangi by'indege ya Perezida Habyalimana

Président Habyarimana yari afite inshuti nyinshi zashoboraga kumurwanaho kandi n'ubwo hari abamurwanyaga abanyarwanda benshi baramukundaga ndetse n'abatutsi benshi baramukundaga.

Abatutsi batinyuka kuvuga ukuri bavuga ko ntacyo yari abatwaye ahubwo ariwe wari ubarinze. FPR imaze kumwica yahise ibonamo inyungu nyinshi mu rupfu rwe: yari yikijije umuntu wari uyibangamiye mugufata ubutegetsi, yahise ibeshya amahanga ko yishwe n'Inzirabwoba zitari zishyigikiye ko amasezerano y'Arusha bituma Leta y'u Rwanda ihinduka igicibwa ntihagira abayemera kugeza no ku nshuti magara za Président Habyarimana. Ibyo byatumye Leta yari yiyise iy'abatabazi ibura ingufu za politiki na diplomasi.

 

 

6. Imiterere ya FPR n'igisirikare cyayo n'intego yari igamije

Ibintu byose yavugaga by'imishyikirano byari ukubeshya, yakoraga ibyo bita fight and talk, ni ukuvuga ko yarwanaga yabona igiye gutsindwa cyangwa ingufu zibaye nke ikemera imishyikirano kugirango yisuganye ibone uko itegura ibindi bitero.

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Gen Kagame n'ingabo ze bari bariteguye urugamba rwa nyuma

Muri FPR harimo discipline ikabije hakorwaga ibyo Kagame ashaka gusa abatabyubahirizaga cyangwa abasirikari bakoraga amakosa baricwaga hakoreshejwe agafuni ni ukuvuga ko abasirikare n'abanyapolitiki ba FPR bari bafite icyerekezo kimwe mubyo bakoraga.

Nta baturage FPR yari ifite bari bayibereye umuzigo mu ntambara yayo ku buryo inkotanyi zabaga zifite umwanya uhagije wo kurwana nta kibazo. Nta musirikare wasabaga uruhushya cyangwa ngo atoroke urugamba ngo agiye guhungisha bene wabo, n'ababigerageje barahanwe bikomeye cyangwa baricwa.

 

 

 

7.Imiterere y'ubutegetsi bwa Zaïre

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Kwambura intwaro Inzirabwoba kwa Zaïre byabaye nko gutema ishami yari yicayeho

Abantu benshi bemeza ko inzirabwoba zatsinzwe bidasubirwaho igihe zinjiraga ku butaka bwa Zaïre zikamburwa intwaro, maze zigashyirwa mu nkambi nk'abaturage basanzwe.

Izo ntwaro bambuwe zarunzwe mu bigo bya gisirikare bya Zaïre zirangirika kugeza igihe Inkotanyi zitereye zikazifata hafi ya zose zaratoye ingese. Izindi zagurishijwe magendu n'abasirikare ba Zaïre ku mitwe itandukanye y'abarwanyi ndetse no kugeza kuri FPR.

Inzirabwoba n'ubwo bwose zari zivuye mu ntambara ikomeye, n'ubwo hari abasirikare benshi basubiye mu Rwanda bakurikiye amareshya mugeni ya FPR, zari zigifite ingufu zashoboraga gutuma zongera kwiyegeranya zikavamo ingabo zikomeye kurusha na mbere, dore ko zari zimaze no kubona isomo. Ariko siko byagenze kuko kubera igitutu cy'amahanga n'uburangare bw'abategetsi ba Zaïre y'icyo gihe.

Ntabwo inzirabwoba zongeye kwiyegeranya ngo zongere zibe ingabo zikomeye, kandi nyamara iyo Zaïre ikora uko ishoboye inzirabwoba zigasubirana ingufu zari kuyirwanirira.

 

8. Ibyitso byari mu Nzirabwoba

Uretse amakuru abo nakwita ibyitso bahaga FPR ku bijyanye n'uko ingabo zihagaze, ibikoresho zifite, amasasu ahari uko angana, aho imitwe y'ingabo iherereye, ibyemezo byafashwe, ibitero bitegurwa n'ibindi.., mu ntambara yo mu 1994 hagaragaye ko FPR yabaga ifite amakuru ahagije ku bitero cyangwa ibikorwa bya gisirikare byabaga byategiwe mu rwego rwo hejuru. Ku buryo ibitero byatunguraga FPR ari ibitero byagabwaga akenshi mu rwego rwo hasi navuga nka Bataillon bitateguwe mu rwego rwo hejuru muri Etat Major cyangwa mu karere k'imirwano (Secteur opérationnel).

Ni ukuvuga ko za opérations zikomeye zose Inzirabwoba zagerageje gukora muri 1994, FPR yabaga yazimenye ku buryo akenshi zendaga kuburiramo ndetse zikagwamo n'abantu benshi. Si ibyo gusa kuko n'ibitero bisanzwe byinshi byo mu rwego rwo hasi ibyinshi FPR yabaga ibizi.

Natanga urugero:
-Opération yo gusohoka mu mujyi wa Byumba
-Opération yo gusohoka muri Kanombe na Kicukiro
-Opération Champagne yo gusohoka mu mujyi wa Kigali yo yabaye nk'aho itunguye FPR kubera ko ubundi yari iteganijwe mu ijoro ry'iya 4 rishyira iya 5 Nyakanga 1994, hagombaga gukoreshwa inzira ebyiri muri icyo gikorwa. Ariko ku itariki ya 3 Nyakanga 1994 imwe mu nzira zari gukoreshwa yacaga mu gace ka Runda na Gihara ikomeza muri Taba, Ingabo za FPR zarayifunze, bituma Etat Major y'Inzirabwoba yegeza imbere Opération Champagne ishyirwa mu ijoro ry'iya 3 rishyira iya 4 Nyakanga 1994 zikoresha inzira yacaga mu Nzove. Kwegeza imbere iyo Opération byatunguye benshi kugeza wenda kubahaga amakuru FPR, ku buryo FPR yatangiye kumenya ibibaye ari uko bucyeye itagishoboye kugira icyo ikora ngo iburizemo icyo gikorwa. Ku buryo abashoboye gusohoka mu mujyi mu ijoro nta bibazo binini bahuye nabyo ariko abasohotse mu mujyi hakeye bo barashweho cyane za bombes ziremereye nka 120mm n'izindi ndetse n'ingabo za FPR zagabye ibitero byinshi zigerageza gufungira abasohokaga muri Kigali ariko kubera ubwinshi bwabo (hari abemezaga ko barengaga Miliyoni imwe) ndetse n'Inzirabwoba zari ziminjiriyemo agafu hafi y'abantu bose bashakaga gusohoka muri Kigali barasohotse.

 

9. Inzego z'iperereza zitari zifite ingufu

Iyo urebye inzego z'iperereza z'Inzirabwoba uko zari zimeze ubona ahubwo kuba zarashoboye kurwana hafi imyaka 4 ari igitangaza.

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Gen Karenzi Karake yashoboye kuneka ku buryo bworoshye yitwaje umwanya yari afite muri GOMN na MINUAR

Ari iperereza ryo muri Etat Major y'ingabo (G2) ryategekwaga na Colonel BEMSG Aloys Ntiwiragabo, ari iperereza ryo muri Gendarmerie (G2) ryategekwaga na Major Stanislas Kinyoni, ari Diviziyo y'iperereza ryo Hanze no mu gihugu (Contre Espionage) yo muri Ministère y'Ingabo yategekwaga na Major Vénant Hategekimana, ari inzego z'iperereza zo muri Perezidansi zaje kujya mu biro bya Ministre w'Intebe zari ziyobowe na Augustin Iyamuremye, izo nzego zose zari zifite ubushobozi bucye kubera abakozi bacye, ibikoresho bicye, ubushake bucye bw'abayobozi ba politiki babangamiraga imikorere y'izo nzego n'ibindi.

Iyo urebye inzego z'iperereza FPR yari ifite ikiri mu ishyamba ukareba n'izo ifite ubu iri muri Leta niho umuntu abonera ko Inzirabwoba mu rwego rw'iperereza zari hasi cyane, atari ukubura abahanga mu iperereza ahubwo ari impamvu nyinshi zijyanye n'imiterere y'igisirikare n'ubushake bwa politiki bw'icyo gihe.

Uwavuga ko Inzirabwoba zari zifite amakuru macye cyane kuri FPR n'ingabo zayo ntabwo yaba yibeshye, mu gihe FPR yo ibyo itari izi ku nzirabwoba ari byo byari bicye cyane.

 

 

II.Ibintu byari bimeze bite mbere gato ya Mata 1994?

Kuva mu 1990 intambara itagira mu gisirikare hinjiyemo abasore benshi, ibyo byakozwe huti huti kuko hari hakenewe abasirikare bo kujya ku rugamba, bituma hadakurikizwa amabwiriza ya ngombwa ubundi yakoreshwaga mu gucagura abajya mu ngabo.
Ibyo byateye imyitwarire mibi cyane cyane mu rwego rwa discipline ku basirikare bamwe na bamwe bari bakinjira mu ngabo. Urugero: Kwiba, gutoroka urugamba, kutubahiriza amategeko y'ababayobora, guhohotera abasiviri n'ibindi..

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Perezida Habyalimana na Colonel Kanyarengwe i Kinihira mu mishyikirano

Mu 1991 hatangiye politiki y'amashyaka menshi aho abanyapolitiki barwanyaga ubutegetsi icyo gihe bibasiye cyane Inzirabwoba, aho bamwe batatinyaga kubwira abasirikare ko barwanira Perezida Habyalimana batarwanira igihugu. Hiyongereyeho ibibazo byari mu gisirikare bitewe n'abasirikare bashya binjiye hatabanje kuba igenzura rihagije byagabanyije ingufu z'Inzirabwoba. Ibyo bibazo byahuriranye n'ibitero simusiga by'Ingabo za FPR byo mu mpera za 1991 no mu ntangiriro za 1992. Ingabo za FPR nibwo zashoboye gufata agace ku butaka bw'u Rwanda bwa mbere ahagana mu Mutara. N'ubwo bwose inzirabwoba ntako zitagize ngo zihagarareho abanyapolitiki ba opposition y'icyo gihe ntibari bazoroheye.

Mu mishyikirano ya Arusha yatangiye mu mwaka 1992, yatumye habaho guhagarika imirwano, ariko muri Gashyantare 1993 Ingabo za FPR zagabye igitero zitunguranye ziciye ku masezerano y'amahoro, zishobora gufata agace kanini ariko zisubijwe inyuma mu karere k'imirwano ka Ruhengeri n'ingabo zari ziyobowe na Général Major BEM Augustin Bizimungu. Izo ngabo zarimo amabataillons akomeye nka Bataillon Commando Huye ya Major Ir Faustin Ntilikina, 1er Bataillon Muvumba ya Major BEM Emmanuel Neretse n'izindi.

Nyuma yo guhagarika imirwano na none hashyizweho akarere kiswe zone Tempo ingabo za FPR zitwa ko zisubiye mu birindiro byazo bya mbere ya tariki 8 Gashyantare 1993. Ariko mu by'ukuri ako karere kari mu maboko y'ingabo za FPR ni naho zaturutse zigaba igitero cya nyuma simusiga cyo mu 1994.

Mu rwego rw'amasezerano y'amahoro yari yasinyiwe Arusha, FPR yari yemerewe kuzana abasirikare 600 ba Bataillon ya 3 ya APR mu mujyi wa Kigali bari bayobowe na Lieutenant Colonel Charles Kayonga kugira ngo baride abayobozi ba FPR bari bateganijwe kujya mu nzego z'igihugu zari ziteganijwe n'amasezerano ya Arusha.

Izo ngabo zabereye urwitwazo FPR ishobora kugeza mu mujyi wa Kigali abasirikare bari hagati ya 2000 na 3000 hakoreshejwe uburangare cyangwa akagambane ka MINUAR/UNAMIR.

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Inzu ya CND ahari abasirikare "600" ba FPR

Hakoreshwaga amayeri yose ashoboka kugira ngo umubare wabo wiyongere bakoresheje abasiviri bazaga kubasura muri CND. Amwe muri ayo mayeri yari aya:umusiviri yarinjiraga akagurana imyenda n'umusirikare wa FPR wahitaga ajya hanze mu baturage, naho wa musiviri akambara imyenda ya gisirikare akazajya ku Murindi, wa musiviri agahita yinjizwa mu ngabo za FPR, naho i Kigali hakaza undi musirikare wa FPR mu mwanya we.

Si ibyo gusa kuko abo basirikare bivugwa ko ari nabo bazanye Missiles zarashe indege ya Nyakwigendera Perezida Habyalimana.
Mu gihugu imbere hari umutekano mucye waterwaga, n'abasirikare ba FPR bari baracengeye, ubujura, abasirikare b'Inzirabwoba batorotse urugamba, amashyaka ya Politiki yasubiranagamo n'impfu z'abanyapolitiki byaje kumenyekana nyuma ko ari FPR yabaga ibiri inyuma (urugero:Gapyisi, Gatabazi, Bucyana..).

Ni muri icyo gihe kandi abasore b'abatutsi abenshi berekezaga mu nkotanyi naho ab'abahutu bakajya mu mitwe y'amashyaka ya politiki yitwaraga gisirikare.

Iryo yinjizwa ry'abasirikare bashya na FPR (bamwe bajyaga kwitoza ibya gisirikare bakagaruka iwabo) n'izo nsoresore z'amashyaka zirirwaga zitoza izindi zirwana, byatumaga urwikekwe hagati y'abahutu n'abatutsi rwiyongera ku buryo mu kwezi kwa Mata 1994 haburaga imbarutso gusa.

Icyo gihe uko byagaragaye mu buhamya bwinshi, Inzirabwoba ntabwo zari zitegute iyubura ry'imirwano: Abasirikare bamwe na bamwe bategekaga amaBataillons ku rugamba boherejwe kwiga mu mahanga izo Batallons zisigara zitegekwa n'aba Lieutenants cyangwa Capitaines, nta masasu ahagije yari ahari, imitwe y'ingabo hafi ya yose ntabwo yongeye guhabwa amasasu nyuma y'ihagarikwa ry'imirwano ryo 1993, hari amasasu yari yaratumijwe mbere y'ihagarikwa ry'imirwano byabaye ngombwa ko u Rwanda rutayakira kuko MINUAR yabibonagamo kwitegura intambara (Muri Mutarama 1994, uwari umugaba w'Ingabo Général Major BEM Nsabimana Déogratias yasabye kubonana na Ministre w'Imali, Bwana Marc Rugenera ngo amusabe ko hagurwa ibikoresho kuko ibyari bihari byari bicye cyane ku buryo FPR iyo yubura imirwano byari kuba bigoye kwirwanaho, ariko Ministre Rugenera wari muri PSD ku ruhande rwari rushyigikiye FPR yanze ko ibyo bikoresho bigurwa ndetse anamenyesha bagenzi be bo muri FPR ko nta bikoresho bihagije Inzirabwoba zifite!)

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Leta y'u Rwanda yari ifite umuzigo munini w'abakuwe mu byabo n'intambara

Igihugu cy'u Bufaransa cyari cyarafashije cyane Inzirabwoba mu kuziha no kuzigurisha ibikoresho bya gisirikare, bwari bumaze kwirukanwo mu Rwanda na Ministre w'Intebe Dismas Nsengiyaremye nawe wari wabisabwe na FPR kugira ngo azagirwe Ministre w'Intebe nyuma y'isimya ry'amasezerano ya Arusha. (N'ubwo atari ko byagenze hemejwe Bwana Faustin Twagiramungu ariko abafaransa bari barangije kwirukanwa.) Icyo cyemezo cyarakaje abafaransa cyane kuko bakimenyejejwe cyarangije gufatwa batagishijwe inama.

Ikindi cyatumye ibintu bizamba ni uko igihe indege ya Perezida Habyalimana yahanurwaga, ingabo za FPR zigahita zubura imirwano, abayobozi bakuru b'inzirabwoba benshi ntibari mu gihugu abenshi bagarutse mu matariki ya 20 Mata 1994.
-Ministre w'Ingabo Augustin Bizimana yari mu butumwa bw'akazi muri Cameroun
-Umugaba Mukuru w'ingabo Général Major BEM Déogratias Nsabimana yari yaguye mu ndege imwe na Perezida Habyalimana
-Uwari ushinzwe imirwano muri Etat-Major (G3) Général de Brigade IG Gratien Kabiligi yari mu butumwa bw'akazi mu Misiri
-Uwari ushinzwe iperereza muri Etat-Major (G2) Colonel BEMSG Aloys Ntiwiragabo yari mu butumwa bw'akazi muri Cameroun
Kuba aba basirikare bakuru batari bahari byateye guhuzagurika no kudahita hafatwa ibyemezo bya ngombwa byari bikenewe muri icyo gihe. Uko guhuzagurika kwahaye FPR agahenge ishobora kwigarurira ibice byinshi kandi bitera akaduruvayo mu gihugu katashoboye guhagarikwa.

 

III. ABARI BAHANGANYE BARI BAHAGAZE BATE MU 1994?

 

1.Inzirabwoba (Les Force Armées Rwandaises)

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Perezida Habyalimana asuhuza bamwe mu bakuru b'Inzirabwoba. Uvuye i bumoso ugana i buryo Gen Mudacumura, Perezida Habyalimana, Gen Nsabimana na Colonel Serubuga yasimbuye mu 1992

Muri Werurwe 1994, Inzirabwoba zageraga ku 34.000, n'ukuvuga Armée Rwandaise:28.000 naho Gendarmerie Nationale: 6000.
Bataillons nyinshi z'inzirabwoba ubundi zakagombye kuba zifite abasirikare hagati ya 600 na 800, zari zifite hagati ya 350 na 600, kubera ko hari abasirikare benshi bari baraguye cyangwa bagakomerekera ku rugamba rwo muri 1992 na 1993 batari bashoboye gusimburwa kuko amasezerano ya Arusha yabuzaga kwinjiza abasirikare bashya, hari abari barasubiye mu mashuri cyangwa bajya mu mahugurwa mu mahanga kuko bari bazi ko intambara yarangiye ingabo zigiye kuvangwa, hari abari baratorotse urugamba, bivugwa kandi ko hari abayobozi bamwe b'ingabo batangaga imibare itariyo y'abasirikare kugira go barigise imishahara yabo!

Inzirabwoba zari zigabanyijemo uturere tw'imirwano (OPS) kongeraho indi mitwe y'ingabo yari ifite imirimo yihariye:

 

A.Ingabo z’igihugu (Armée Rwandaise)

Chef d'Etat-major: Général Major BEM Déogratias Nsabimana yitabye Imana mu ndege imwe na Perezida Habyalimana yasibuwe by'agateganyo na Général BEM Marcel Gatsinzi nawe waje gusimburwa na Général Major BEM Augustin Bizimungu. Mu mategeko Inzirabwoba zagenderagaho, ahabaga imirwano hose imitwe ya Gendarmerie yabaga ihari yahitaga ishyirwa mu maboko ya Etat

Major y’ingabo.

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Urupfu rwa Gen Nsabimana rwashegeshe Inzirabwoba

G1: Colonel Joseph Murasampongo

G2: Colonel BEMSG Aloys Ntiwiragabo

G3: Général de Brigade I.G. Gratien Kabiligi

G4: Lieutenant Colonel BEMS Augustin Rwamanywa

 

OPS Kigali-Ville: Colonel BEMS Félicien Muberuka

S1: Major Mutsinzi Francois Xavier

S2-S3:Major Gd Munyarugerero Vincent

S4: Major Rurangwa André

Bataillon Commando Huye:Capitaine Nyaminani yaje gusimburwa na Major Ir Faustin Ntilikina muri Gicurasi 1994

Bataillon Cyangugu:Major Alfred Rutayisire

 

OPS Ruhengeri: Colonel BEM Augustin Bizimungu (yaje kugirwa Général Major ahita aba umugaba mukuru w'ingabo asimburwa na Lieutenant Colonel CGSC Marcel Bivugabagabo ku buyobozi bwa OPS Ruhengeri)

S1: Major Byukusenge Alexis

S2-S3: Lieutenant Colonel CGSC Marcel Bivugabagabo

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Gen Kabiligi, ukubura kwe mu ntangiriro y'imirwano kwashegeshe Inzirabwoba

S4: Capitaine Niyomugabo Joseph

Bataillon Commando Ruhengeri: Major CGSC Laurent Bizabalimana

32ème Bataillon: Major I.G Ruhumuriza

73ème Bataillon: Capitaine Hasengineza Boniface

1er Bataillon Muvumba: Major BEM Emmanuel Neretse

 

OPS Rulindo: Lieutenant Colonel BEM Antoine Sebahire

S1: Major Uwamungu

S2-S3: Major Habimana P. Claver

S4: Capitaine Harelimana Denys

2ème Bataillon Muvumba: Capitaine Niyibizi Céléstin

61ème Bataillon: Capitaine Nkunzuwimye Prudence

64ème Bataillon: Capitaine Rusingiza Théodore

Bataillon Gitarama:Major Ir Lambert Rugambage

 

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Lt Col Anatole Nsengiyumva yategekaga OPS Gisenyi

OPS Gisenyi: Lieutenant Colonel BEMS Nsengiyumva Anatole

42ème Bataillon: Capitaine Habimana Faustin

Bataillon CECdo Bigogwe: Lieutenant Colonel Nzungize

63ème Bataillon: Major Tulikunkiko David-Emile

 

OPS Mutara: Lieutenant Colonel BEM Léonard Nkundiye

S1: Major Ndamage Martin

S2-S3: Major BEM Emmanuel Habyalimana

S4: Major Habimana Donat

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Gen Emmanuel Habyalimana ntabwo yashoboye kurwana ku Mutara, yakijijwe n'amaguru rugikubita

74ème Bataillon: Capitaine Rwaburindi Léonidas

3ème Bataillon Muvumba: Lieutenant Nshutiraguma Barthélemy

81ème Bataillon: S2-S3: Lieutenant Musabyimana

94ème Bataillon: Lieutenant Ntawunguka Pacifique

 

OPS Kibungo: Colonel BEM Anselme Nkuliyekubona

Bataillon RUSUMO: Capitaine Mugarura Alexandre

 

OPS Byumba: Lieutenant Colonel BEM Juvénal Bahufite

S1: Major Mathias Murengerantwali

S2-S3: Lieutenant Colonel BEM Edouard Gasarabwe

S4: Major BEMS Kabera Christophe

17ème Bataillon: Capitaine Kazabavamo Prudence

31ème Bataillon: Major I.G Sylvestre Mudacumura

51ème Bataillon: Major Karegeya Claudien

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Cpt Sagahutu yategekaga Esc A ya Bn Recce

53ème Bataillon: Major BEM Mutambuka Gaspard

85ème Bataillon: Major Mbarushimana Jacques

Bataillon RUTARE: Lieutenant Kayitare Valens

 

 Indi mitwe yihariye:

Bataillon Gako: Major BAM Augustin Balihenda

Bataillon Para Commando: Major CGSC Aloys Ntabakuze

Bataillon AC (Artillerie de Campagne): Major BEMS Aloys Mutabera

Bataillon LAA (light anti-aircraf): Lieutenant Colonel CGSC Stanislas Hakizimana

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Major Ntabakuze wategekaga Bn ParaCdo

Bataillon Police Militaire: Major BEMS Joël Bararwerekana

Bataillon GP (Garde Présidentielle): Major Protais Mpiranya

Bataillon de Reconnaissance (Blindé/armored): Major BAM Francois Xavier Nzuwonemeye

 

Hari n'indi mitwe y'ingabo yari ishinzwe imirimo itandukanye n’ubuyobozi bw'ibigo bya gisirikare.

Escadrille Aviation: Colonel pilote André Kanyamanza

Base AR: Lieutenant Colonel JMV Ndahimana

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Lt Col Muvunyi wategekaga ESO

Compagnie Génie: Major Ladislas Munyampotore

Compagnie Batîments Militaires: Major Ir Augustin Ntibihora

Compagnie Médicale: Lieutenant Colonel Dr Laurent  Baransalitse

Compagnie Musique: Adjudant Chef  Babonangenda

Ishuri rikuru rya gisirikare ESM: Colonel Léonidas Rusatira

Ishuri ry’abasuzofisiye ry’i Butare ESO: Lieutenant Colonel Tharcisse Muvunyi

Camp Kigali na Compagnie Quartier Général: Lieutenant Colonel Laurent Nubaha

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Lt Col Nubaha wategekaga Camp Kigali

Camp Gako: Lieutenant Colonel BEM Munyarugarama

Camp Gitarama: Sous-Lieutenant Rukabyatorero

Camp Ngoma: Lieutenant Ildephonse Hategekimana

Camp Cyangugu: Lieutenant Samuel Imanishimwe

 

 

B.Gendarmerie y’igihugu

Chef d’Etat Major: Général Major BEM Augustin Ndindiliyimana

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Gen Ndindiliyimana wategekaga Gendarmerie

G1: Major Théophile Gakara

G2: Major Stanislas Kinyoni

G3: Lieutenant Colonel Paul Rwarakabije

G4: Major Jean Baptiste Nsanzimfura

Camp Kacyiru na Groupement Kigali: Lieutenant Colonel JMV Nzapfakumunsi

Compagnie Quartier Général: Major Jérôme Ngendahimana

Groupe Mobile Kigali: Lieutenant Colonel Laurent Munyakazi

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Gen Rwarakabije yari G3 muri Gendarmerie

Groupe d’Intervention: Major Murangira

Compagnie Sécurité: Lieutenant Colonel Innocent Bavugamenshi

Compagnie Sécurité Routière: Major Rwagakinga

CRDC: Major Damien Burakari

EGENA: Major Augustin Budura

Groupement Ruhengeri: Major Emmanuel Munyawera

Groupement Gisenyi: Major Apollinaire Biganiro

Groupement Kibuye: Major Jean Baptiste Jabo

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Gen Munyakazi yategekaga Groupe Mobile

Groupement Butare: Major Cyriaque Habyarabatuma

Groupement Kibungo (Rwamagana): Major Havugiyaremye

Groupement Gikongoro: Major Christophe Bizimungu

Groupement Cyangugu: Major Vincent Munyarugerero

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Gen Ngendahimana yategekaga Cie QG ya EM GN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.Ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi (Armée Patriotique Rwandaise)

FPR kumenya abasirikare yari ifite icyo gihe biragoye cyane, kuko hari benshi bari baracengeye mu baturage, kandi mu gihe cy'imishyikirano ndetse n'igihe amasezerano ya ARUSHA yari amaze gushyirwaho umukono FPR yakomezaga kwinjiza mu gisirikare cyayo abasirikare bashya.
Général Roméo Dallaire mu buhamya yatanze mu rukiko rwa Arusha, avuga ko FPR yari ifite abasirikare bari hagati ya 20.000 na 30.000.

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kuva iburyo ugana ibumoso: Gen Sam Kaka wa Alpha Mobile, Col Twahirwa Dodo wa Bravo Mobile, Col Gashumba wa Charlie Mobile na Col Musitu wa 21st Mobile

Dore imwe mu mitwe minini y'ingenzi yari igize ingabo za APR:

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Gen Kabareba yategekaga High Command

-Unity ya High command yari iyobowe na Lieutenant Colonel James Kabarebe

-Bataillon ya 3 yari muri CND: Lieutenant Colonel Charles Kayonga

-Alpha Mobile Group: Colonel Sam Kaka yerekeje i Kigali

-Bravo Mobile Group: Colonel Twahirwa Dodo yerekeje i Kigali

-Charlie Mobile Group: Colonel Thaddée Gashumba yagumye mu Ruhengeri na Gisenyi

-59th Mobile Group: Colonel Charles Ngoga yerekeje i Kigali na Gitarama

-21st Mobile Group: Colonel Charles Musitu yarwanye i Byumba nyuma yerekeza i Kigali

-101st Mobile Group: Colonel Charles Muhire yerekeje i Kigali na Gitarama

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Gen Ibingira yategekaga 157th Mobile

-7th Mobile Group: Colonel William Bagire yamanutse mu Mutara, Rwamagana, Kabuga, Kigali

-157th Mobile Groupe: Lieutenant Colonel Fred Ibingira yamanutse Umutara, Kayonza, Kibungo, Bugesera, Gitarama, Butare…

Hiyongeraho indi mitwe y'ingabo yagiye ishingwa uko intambara yakomezaga n'indi yabaga ifite inshingano zihariye nka Mlitary Police, DMI…

Mobile yabaga ari umutwe w'ingabo twagereranya na Brigade n'ukuvuga abasirikare hagati ya 1500 na 2500. Mobile umwe yabaga ifite compagnie (Coy) zigera hafi mu 10.

Mu ntambara hagati kandi hubatswe indi mitwe y'ingabo myinshi, dore ko abasore bamwe bari baratinye kujya mu ngabo za FPR bazijyagamo ku bwinshi baturutse mu bihugu bituranye n'u

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Gen Kayonga yategekaga 3rd Battalion muri CND

Rwanda babonye izo ngabo zigiye gufata igihugu ndetse n'abasore ingabo za FPR zahuraga nabo bose abo ziticaga zabashyiraga mu gisirikare.

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Gen Charles Muhire yategekaga 101st Mobile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV. IMBARUTSO

1.Urupfu rwa Perezida Habyalimana n'abari bamuherekeje

indege2-300x176Tariki ya 6 Mata 1994, indege yari itwaye Perezida Habyalimana na mugenzi we w'u Burundi Cyprien Ntaryamira n'abandi bari babaherekeje yahanuwe n'igisasu cyo mu bwoko bwa missile irimo kwitegura kugwa ku kibuga cy'indege cya Kanombe. (abarashe iyo ndege bayirashe ibisasu bibiri cyo mu bwoko bwa Missile SA 16, kimwe kirayihusha ikindi kirayihamya).

Abari bayirimo bose bahise bitaba Imana. Iyo ndege yarimo abantu baturuka mu Rwanda, u Burundi n'u Bufaransa aribo:
-Perezida Juvénal Habyalimana w'u Rwanda
-Perezida Cyprien Ntaryamira w'u Burundi
-Génénal Major Déogratias NSABIMANA, umugaba mukuru w'ingabo z'u Rwanda (FAR)
-Colonel Elie SAGATWA, umunyamabanga wihariye wa Perezida Habyalimana
-Major Thaddée BAGARAGAZA, wari ushinzwe kurinda Perezida Habyalimana akaba yari anungirije umukuru wa Bataillon Garde Présidentielle
-Ambassadeur Juvénal RENZAHO, umujyanama wa Perezida Habyalimana mu by'ububanyi n'amahanga
-Dr Emmanuel AKINGENEYE umuganga wa Perezida Habyalimana
-Ministre Bernard CIZA wo mu Burundi
-Ministre Cyriaque SIMBIZI w'u Burundi
-abaderevu b'indege b'abafaransa Jacky HERAUD, Jean Pierre MINABERRY na Jean Michel PERRINE.

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Missile SA 16

Ihanurwa ry'iyi ndege bivugwa ko ryakozwe na FPR ryagize ingaruka nini cyane ku Nzirabwoba kuko zari zimaze gutakaza umugaba mukuru w'ikirenga wazo n'umukuru wa Etat Major y'ingabo icyarimwe.

Ibyo byateye guhuzagurika no gusigana mu bakuru b'ingabo bari basigaye i Kigali dore ko na Ministre w'Ingabo Augustin Bizimana, Uwari ushinzwe iperereza G2 Colonel BEMSG Ntiwiragabo Aloys, Uwari ushinzwe imirwano G3 Général de Brigade Gratien Kabiligi bari mu butumwa mu mahanga.

N'ubwo hari ibimenyetso byinshi byagaragazaga ko ari FPR yakoze icyo gikorwa, FPR n'abari bayishyigikiye bakwije ibihuha ko indege yahanuwe n'abahutu b'intagondwa ngo batari bashyigikiye amasezerano ya ARUSHA. Ibi nabyo byagize ingaruka nini kuko Inzirabwoba ndetse n'abahutu bahise bahindurwa ruvumwa mu mahanga ibyo bitiza FPR imbaraga muri gahunda yayo gufata ubutegetsi ku ngufu.

 

2.Iyicwa ry'abanyapolitiki n'abasirikare 10 b'ababiligi

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Inzu abasirikare b'ababiligi bari bihishemo igihe bicirwaga muri Camp Kigali

Mu ijoro ry'iya 6 rishyira iya 7 Mata 1994, abanyapolitiki bari mu mashyaka ya opposition icyo gihe barishwe, bivugwa ko bishwe n'abasirikare b'intagondwa b'Inzirabwoba ngo bahorera Perezida Habyalimana. Ariko hari andi makuru avuga ko bamwe muri abo banyepolitiki nka Ndasingwa Landuald baba barishwe n'abasirikare ba FPR bari baracengeye mu gihugu.

Undi wishwe ni Ministre w'Intebe, Madame Agathe Uwilingiyimana, wicamywe n'umugabo we. Hari amakuru avuga ko Madame Agatha Uwilingiyimana yaba yarazize ko yari amaze iminsi yibasiye Perezida Habyalimana mu mvugo zirimo agasuzuguro kenshi, amanama yakoreshaga iwe yatumiragamo abasirikare bakomokaga mu majyepfo abasaba guhirika Perezida Habyalimana, kuba yarashakaga kujya kuvugira kuri Radio Rwanda ngo ahumurize abanyarwanda hari ababifashe n'aho Madame Uwilingiyimana yari afatanije n'abahanuye indege akaba yari agiye gukora coup d'Etat akoresheje Radio Rwanda mu bufatanye na MINUAR dore ko inkuru zari zakwiriye ko indege ya Habyalimana yahanuwe n'ababiligi bari muri MINUAR.

Abasirikare b'ababiligi bari kwa Ministre w'Intebe Madame Uwilingiyimana, bari section yitwaga Mortier yari iyobowe na Lieutenant Thierry Lotin. Abo basirikare bivugwa ko bari bagize imyitwarire idasanzwe ku munsi wabanjirije iyicwa ryabo ni ukuvuga tariki ya 6 Mata 1994.

33267064_pBari bakoze urugendo rurerure barinze bamwe mu bayobozi ba FPR bazenguruka ahantu henshi harimo Pariki y'Akagera n'ahandi, kandi bivugwa ko baciye kenshi hafi y'aho indege ya Perezida Habyalimana yarasiwe.

Igihe bari bamaze kwamburwa intwaro kwa Ministre w'Intebe Agathe Uwilingiyimana, haciye hafi aho Major Bernard Ntuyahaga wakoraga muri G4 ya Etat Major y'ingabo agiye ku kazi muri Etat Major y'ingabo. Lieutenant Lotin yamusabye kumugeza we n'abasirikare be ahari ingabo za MINUAR hafi, ahari hafi hari muri Camp Kigali habaga abasirikare ba MINUAR. Yabajyanyeyo, ariko bakihagera hari abantu bataramenyekana bakwije igihuha mu basirikare b'ibimuga by'intambara byari muri Camp Kigali.
Icyo gihuha cyavugaga ko abo basirikare b'ababiligi aribo barashe indege ya Perezida Habyalimana, ibyo bimuga ndetse n'abandi basirikare bari hafi aho batangiye guhondagura abo babiligi, abasirikare bakuru bari hafi aho bagerageje gutabara ariko biba iby'ubusa.

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Major Bernard Ntuyahaga wageretsweho urupfu rw'abasirikare 10 b'ababiligi

Muri icyo gihe hari inama yaberaga mu ishuri rya Gisirikare (ESM) hafi yaho, yarimo abakuru b'ingabo n'uturere tw'imirwano yari yanatumiwemo na Général Roméo Dallaire wategekaga MINUAR.

Abo basirikare bakuru baratabaye ariko biba iby'ubusa ndetse banasabye Général Dallaire kuba yabafasha akoresheje ingabo za MINUAR ariko aranga kugeza igihe abo basirikare b'ababiligi biciwe bose.

Igitangaje n'uko igihugu cy'u Bubiligi mu rwego rwo guhoza abapfakazi b'abo basirikare babwo no gushaka ushyirwaho ubwo bwicanyi bakatiye Major Bernard Ntuyahaga imyaka 20 y'igifungo ngo yagize uruhare mu iyicwa ry'abo basirikare!

Urupfu rw'aba basirikare 10 b'ababiligi rwagize ingaruka nini cyane kuko igihugu cy'u Bubiligi cyahise gikura abasirikare bacyo mu ngabo za MINUAR bityo bigatuma n'umuryango w'abibumbye ufata icyemezo cyo kugabanya izo ngabo zikava kuri 2500 zikagera kuri 270.

Ibi byatumye ubwicanyi n'intambara bikaza umurego abo basirikare bakimara kugenda. Ku Nzirabwoba uru rupfu rw'ababiligi rwatumye zigira isura mbi n'ubundi yari imaze kwangirika kubera urupfu rw'abanyapolitiki ndetse na Propaganda ya FPR n'abari bayishyigikiye.

 

V.ITANGIRA RY’IMIRWANO

Nyuma y'urupfu rwa Perezida Habyalimana n'abo bari kumwe, ingabo za FPR zari mu majyaruguru hafi y'umupaka na Uganda ndetse no muri zone Tempo zahise zitangira kwerekeza mu mujyi wa Kigali.

Ku itariki ya 7 Mata 1994, ingabo za FPR zasohotse muri CND, zigaba igitero ku kigo cya Kimihurura, bamwe berekeza i Remera, abandi kuri Méridien n'ibitaro bya Faycal ugana ku Kacyiru.

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Major Protasi Mpiranya wayoboraga Bn GP yarwanye ku kigo cya Kimihurura

Ikigo cya Kimihurura cyabagamo abashinzwe kurinda Perezida wa Repubulika (Bataillon Garde Présidentielle) cyari kiyobowe na Major Protais Mpiranya. Nk'uko FPR yabivugaga ngo yari igiye guhana Bataillon Garde Présidentielle, ariko siko byagenze kuko ingabo za FPR nizo zahakuye isomo!

Muri icyo kigo harimo igice kimwe cya Bataillon Garde Présidentielle (abandi basirikare bari barinze ahandi hantu hatandukanye nka Perezidansi ya Repubulika mu mujyi i Kigali hagati, Village Urugwiro ku Kacyiru, ingo za Perezida Habyalimana mu Kiyovu, i Kanombe, mu Gasiza, mu Butotori n'ahandi), hari na Compagnie ya 2 ya Bataillon Paracommando yari iyobowe na Lieutenant Jean de Dieu Gahutu yari yaje ku Kimihurura gufasha Bataillon Garde Présidentielle.

Icyo gitero cyari simusiga kandi bigaragara ko cyari kimaze igihe gitegurwa neza. Ingabo za FPR zimaze kujya mu myanya yo kwitegura imirwano zabanje kohereza ibisasu byinshi cyane ku kigo cya Kimihurura, nyuma yo kugaba igitero simusiga.
Abasirikare ba Bn GP na 2ème Cie Bn ParaCdo bari muri icyo kigo bihagazeho rubura gica, bashobora gusubiza inyuma icyo gitero, abasirikare ba FPR ntabwo bashoboye kurenga umutaru.

Iyi iba ibaye intangiriro y'intambara simusiga hafi y'icyo kigo yamaze hafi iminsi 88 kugeza aho Inzirabwoba zisohokeye mu mujyi wa Kigali mu ijoro ry'iya 3 rishyira iya 4 Nyakanga 1994.

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Ingabo za FPR zirimo kurasisha Mortier 82mm imbere yo kwa Lando i Remera

Ikindi gitero gikomeye cyagabwe ku kigo cya Kimihurura ahagana mu rukerera rw'itariki ya 13 Mata 1994, cyo cyari gikomeye cyane kurusha icya mbere, mbese FPR yari yiyemeje gufata icyo kigo, icyo gitero cyari cyibasiye kandi Etat-Major ya Gendarmerie yari hafi y'ikigo cya Kimihurura. Ariko kimwe n'icya mbere cyaburiyemo ingabo za FPR zisubizwa inyuma zihatakariza n'abasirikare benshi kubera ubuhanga mu mirwano bw'abaGP n'abaparacommando bari barinze icyo kigo.

Nyuma y'icyo gitero ingabo za FPR zahinduye imirwanire, zikajya zikora udukorwa dutoya two gushotora abasirikare bari muri icyo kigo ndetse no kohereza ibisasu biremereye kuri icyo kigo. Andi mayeri yakoreshejwe ni ugushaka kugota icyo kigo kugira ngo abakirimo babure ubufasha n'ibibatunga, ariko nabyo ingabo za FPR ntabwo zabigezeho kugeza aho abari barinze icyo kugo bakiviriyemo mu gihe cy'isohoka mu mujyi wa Kigali. (Opération Champagne).

Tugarutse ku itariki ya 7 Mata 1994, ingabo za FPR zerekeje i Remera zigana i Kanombe zafashe amahuriro y'imihanda yo kwa Lando, zigaba igitero kuri Brigade ya Gendarmerie yari hafi y'isoko rya Remera ziyifata bitaziruhije. Mu mugoroba waho MINUAR yafunguriye imiryango ya Stade Amahoro ingabo za FPR.

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Bataillon Paracommando yarwaniye i Remera

Ku ruhande rw'Inzirabwoba icyihutirwaga kwari ukubuza ingabo za FPR gufata ikibuga cy'indege cya Kanombe cyari nko mu birometero 2 by'aho ingabo za FPR zari zigeze. Hahise hoherezwa abasirikare ba Bataillon Paracommando bari bayobowe na Major CGSC Aloys Ntabakuze, bafata igice kinini cya Centre Christus i Remera n'amahuriro y'imihanda yo ku Giporoso. Abo bapara bari bategereje mu rukerera ngo bagabe igitero ku ngabo za FPR.

Ariko muri iryo joro ingabo za FPR zo ntabwo zasinziriye zatunganyije ibirindiro byazo ndetse zinegera imbere mu duce tumwe na tumwe. Ku rundi ruhande rwa stade Amahoro ahagana mu Migina kimwe no hafi yo kwa Lando, abaturage babyutse bagwa mu maboko y'ingabo za FPR naho abandi baricwa.

Natanga urugero rwa Major GD Hélène Bugenimana n'abana be, Colonel GD Pontien Hakizimana (yari yaragiye mu kiruhuko cy'izabukuru akaba n'umuvandimwe wa Musenyeri Ruzindana nawe wishwe na FPR)  n'abandi benshi bishwe ku itariki ya 7 n'iya 8 Mata 1994 i Remera.

Abandi baturage basanzwe bajyanywe n'ingabo za FPR muri stade Amahoro aho hakomeje ibikorwa byo gutoranyamo abicwa hakurikijwe amoko n'igitsina mu maso ya MINUAR hakaba hari hibasiwe abagabo n'abasore b'abahutu bize n'abandi bagaragaraga ko bishoboye.

Ku mugoroba wa tariki 7 mata 1994 ku rundi ruhande rwa CND ahagana Kacyiru ingabo za FPR zafashe Hotel Méridien n'ibitaro bya Faycal, abasirikare ba MINUAR bari bahari bararebereye gusa.

Mu majyaruguru, Inkotanyi zari zatangiye kwerekeza mu mujyi wa Kigali ziturutse muri Zone Tempo, zambaye imyenda isanzwe zigize abaturage basanzwe b'impunzi, izo ngabo zageze i Kabuye tariki ya 7 Mata 1994 mu ma saa kumi n'imwe (17h00) aho bafashe intwaro n'imyenda ya gisirikare byari bisanzwe bibitswe mu mazu ya Paruwasi ya Kabuye. Umusirikare wo mu Nzirabwoba w'umwofficier wari i Kabuye niwe wabibonye abimenyesha Etat-major y'Inzirabwoba.

Bataillon Cyangugu yatagekwaga na Major Alfred Rutayisire yari ishinze ibirindiro ku Cyamutara yohereje Compagnie imwe (abasirikare barenze gato 100) i Kabuye bari bategereje kugaba igitero kuri izo ngabo za FPR mu gitondo.

 

Byari byifashe gute muri Etat Major y'ingabo tariki 7 Mata 1994?

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Blindés za Bn Recce zari zashinze ibirindiro imbere y'amazu y'ubutegetsi: Aha ni imbere ya Radio Rwanda

Gusohoka muri CND kw'Inkotanyi no gutera ikigo cya Kimihurura cyatumye Etat Major y'Inzirabwoba ibona ko koko FPR yubuye imirwano.

Imirimo yo kureba icyakorwa yahise itangira, ababishinzwe bose bashaka amakuru ajyanye n'uko ibintu bimeze bitegura inama yo kwiga icyakorwa yagombaga kuba mu mugoroba.

Uwari wagizwe umugaba Mukuru w'ingabo n'inama y'abasirikare bakuru yari yateranye mu ijoro ry'iya 6 rishyira iya 7 Mata 1994, ariwe Colonel BEM Marcel Gatsinzi yari ataragera i Kigali. Inama yayobowe na Colonel Joseph Murasampongo wari G1 akaba n'umusirikare wari ufite ipeti rinini wari muri iyo nama.

Abari muri iyo nama nta cyemezo bafashe uretse gutanga ibyifuzo by'ibyakorwa ngo imirwano ihagarare n'ubwicanyi bwari bwatangiye buhagarare.

Ku basirikare b'Inzirabwoba bari muri iyo nama bumvaga FPR irimo gutera ubwoba gusa, bumvaga ko MINUAR n'ibihugu by'amahanga biribusabe FPR gusubira mu mishyikirano igahagarika imirwano. Akazi kajyanye n'ibya gisirikare nyirizina katangiye nka saa sita z'ijoro (00h00).

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Inzirabwoba zari zifite Batterie imwe y'izi 122mm Howitzer. Kubura amasasu yazo byashegeshe Inzirabwoba

Hamaze kurebwa uko ibintu byifashe byagaragaye ko FPR yafashe gahunda yo kubura imirwano kandi yashyize ingufu nyinshi muri icyo gikorwa.

Etat Major y'ingabo muri Kigali mu guhangana na FPR yari ifite OPS Kigali ville yari ifite Bataillon 2: Bataillon Cyangugu yari ku muhanda Kigali-Gatuna na Bataillon Commando Huye yari kuri Mont Kigali. Muri za Bataillons 3 zindi Etat Major yari ifite muri Kigali: Bataillon Para Commando na Bataillon Garde Présidentielle zari zagiye mu maboko ya OPS Kigali ville kubera imirwano yaberaga ku Kimihurura na Remera. Bataillon yindi yari isigaye ni Bataillon Reconnaissance, za Blindés zayo zari zashinze ibirindiro ahari amazu y'ubutegetsi nka Perezidansi na Radio Rwanda.

Ku bijyanye n'ibikoresho ibiro bya G4 byatanze rapport y'ibikoresho byari bihari. Iyo rapport yahise itera inkeke abari mu nama bose. Ububiko bw'amasasu y'igihugu cyose yari ku rupapuro rusanzwe rwa A4. Amasasu yari make cyane ku buryo mu bubiko bw'Inzirabwoba nta bikoresho bikurikira byarimo:

-Roquettes air-sol za Kajugujugu Gazelle
-Bombes za Blindé AML 90
-Bombes za Howitzer 122 mm
-Bombes za Howitzer 105mm
N'ibindi

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Howitzer 105mm (inkotanyi zazitaga Dimbahasi) nazo zabuze amasasu rugikubita zijya kubikwa i Muramba

Tubibutse ko uwari Ministre w'Imali Bwana Marc Rugenera yanze ko hagurwa ibikoresho bya gisirikare avuga ko intambara yarangiye. Kuba Guverinoma yariho itari ishyize hamwe ndetse na FPR yarayicengeye biri mu byatumye Inzirabwoba zibura ibikoresho. Abasirikare b'Inzirabwoba nta masasu baherukaga kubona kuva imirwano yo mu ntangiriro za 1993 yarangira.

Uko bigaragara n'uko abateguraga urugamba ku ruhande rwa FPR bari bariteguye urugamba rwa nyuma mu gihe Inzirabwoba zo zumvaga zigiye kuvanga n'ingabo za FPR. Muri uko kwitegura bashatse uburyo binjiza abasirikare benshi mu mujyi wa Kigali uretse Bataillon ya 3 yari iyobowe na Lieutenant Colonel Charles Kayonga hari abacengeye benshi cyane, ibi bikaba byari bigamije kubuza imitwe y'ingabo y'Inzirabwoba yari ikomeye nka Bataillon Paracommando, Bataillon de Reconnaissance na za Blindés zayo, Bataillon Artillerie de campagne (BAC) na za Howitzer 105mm na Howitzer 122mm zayo, ndetse na Bataillon Commando Huye gutabara aho FPR yashoboraga gutera hose iturutse mu majyaruguru.

 

 

Etat Major y'Inzirabwoba yinjiye mu mirwano ifite ibibazo byinshi

Mu ijoro ryo ku ya 7 rishyira iya 8 Mata 1994, ingabo za FPR zavaga mu majyaruguru zambutse umuhanda Kigali-Byumba ahagana kuri Paruwasi ya Kabuye zerekeza kuri CND ziciye mu kibaya cya Kinyinya na Nyarutarama. Abasirikare ba Bataillon Cyangugu ya Major Rutayisire bari boherejwe hafi yaho birinze gutera izo ngabo ahubwo bakurikirana ibyo zakoraga byose bakabimenyesha Etat Major y'Inzirabwoba.

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Abasirikare b'Inzirabwoba mu mujyi i Kigali

Kure gato y'inzira ingabo za FPR zakoreshaga hari Bataillon Police Militaire yari mu kigo cy'i Kami, ariko ntacyo yashoboraga gukora ngo ifunge iyo nzira kuko yari kure kandi byasabaga gutegura icyo gikorwa hatirengagijwe ko n'ikigo cya Kami cyari cyugarijwe.

Aba PM ba Major BEMS Bararwerekana bakoze ibikorwa byo gukurikiranira hafi ibyo ingabo za FPR zakoraga no kwitegura kuba bakwirwanaho baramutse batewe.

Ingabo za FPR zaturukaga mu majyaruguru zimaze guhura n'izari muri CND ahagana tariki 8 Mata 1994, ikigo cya Kami cyaragoswe gihita kinagabwaho igitero simusiga, ariko abasirikare na Bataillon Police Militaire bari bayobowe na Major BEMS Joël Bararwerekana bashoboye kwihagararaho basubiza inyuma ibyo bitero byose.

Bataillon PM yashoboye kwihagararaho kugeza ahagana tariki ya 25 Mata 1994, aho ingabo nyinshi za FPR zari zambutse ikiyaga cya Muhazi zagabye ibitero simusiga ziturutse mu mpinga za Gikomero. AbaPM n'imiryango yabo bashoboye gusohoka mu kigo cya Kami bashaka inzira mu mirwano itoroshye n'imitego myinshi dore ko n'amabombe yaraswaga n'ingabo za FPR atari aboroheye. Bashoboye gufungura inzira bagera ku Kimironko hari mu maboko y'Inzirabwoba bahashinga ibirindiro, kugeza ahagana mu matariki 20 Gicurasi 1994 aho basubiye inyuma kimwe n'izindi Nzirabwoba zari mu gace kegereye Kanombe na Kigali y'Uburasirazuba.

Tugarutse ku itariki ya 8 Mata 1994, mu museke ingabo za FPR zavaga i Kabuye n'izo muri CND zari zashoboye guhura no gukora umuhora zacishagamo abasirikare n'ibikoresho byaturukaga mu majyaruguru bigana kuri CND no mu tundi duce.

Ku itariki ya 8 Mata 1994 mu gitondo imirwano yari igikomeje hafi y'ikigo cya Kimihurura hagati ya Bataillon Garde Présidentille ifatanije na 2ème Compagnie ya Bataillon ParaCommando n'ingabo za FPR zari ziyobowe na Lieutenant Colonel Charles Kayonga.
I Remera, ingabo za FPR zari zashinze ibirindiro inyuma ya Stade amahoro, amahuriro y'imihanda yo kwa Lando ndetse zimwe muri izo ngabo zarimo zerekeza kuri Sonatube ahagana Kicukiro. Abantu benshi bari batuye muri ako karere batunguwe n'imirwano ku buryo batashoboye guhunga, bamwe biciwe aho abandi bajyanwa kuri stade Amahoro.

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Ingabo za FPR zirimo kurashisha mortier 82mm muri Kigali

Ahagana i Kanombe, Bataillon Paracommando ya Major CGSC Aloys Ntabakuze yagabye igitero ku ngabo za FPR, ndetse ikomeza no gucunga inzira ya Remera-Kicukiro. Abo baPara bashoboye gusunika ingabo za FPR bazikura muri Centre Christus ndetse babohoza Centre ya Remera, ariko byabaye ngombwa ko Bataillon Para Commando ihagarika kwegera imbere igana kuri stade Amahoro ibisabwe na Etat Major y'Inzirabwoba kuko Général Roméo Dallaire wategekaga ingabo za MINUAR yavugaga ko ibisasu byoherezwaga na SP ya Bataillon Para Commando ndetse na Bataillon AC (Artillerie de Campagne) byituraga ku birindiro by'ingabo za MINUAR byari bifatanye n'iby'ingabo za FPR zageragezaga kubuza Bataillon Para Commando kwegera imbere.

Ahagana i Kabuye ikihutirwaga ku Nzirabwoba kwari ugufunga umuhora wahuza ingabo za FPR zaturukaga mu majyaruguru n'izari muri CND. Icyo gikorwa cyashinzwe Bataillon Commando Huye ya Capitaine Nyaminani yari ishinze ibirindiro ku musozi wa Mont Kigali na Bataillon Police Militaire ya Major BEMS Joël Bararwerekana yari mu kigo cy'i Kami ahagana mu gitondo cyo ku ya 8 Mata 1994. Gutegura icyo gitero byabaye nyuma ya saa sita, byari byatinze ntabwo bashoboraga kugaba igitero bateguye ku manywa. Ingabo za FPR zakoresheje ako gahenge maze zikomeza ibirindiro ku muhora Kabuye-CND, ndetse zikomeza kongera abasirikare muri Kigali.

Tariki ya 9 Mata 1994, igitero kitari gikomeye cyane cyagabwe na Compagnies ebyiri za Bataillon Cdo Huye ku muhora w'ingabo za FPR wa Kabuye-CND ariko kiburiramo nticyashobora kuwufunga. Ikindi gitero cyagabwe tariki ya 10 Mata nacyo ntacyo cyashoboye kugeraho. Impamvu nyamukuru n'uko izo Compagnies ebyiri za Bn Cdo Huye zateye umuhora wacagamo hafi Alpha Mobile Group ya Col Sam KAKA yose, abasirikare barengaga 2000! Ibyo byatumye ikigo cya Kami gisigara cyonyine kugeza Inzirabwoba zikivuyemo mu mpera z'ukwezi kwa Mata 1994.

Ahagana i Kabuye, Inzirabwoba zari zifite umugambi wo kubuza Inkotanyi kwerekeza mu mujyi wa Kigali. Compagnie ya Bataillon Cyangugu yari yoherejwe i Kabuye ku munsi ubanza yari yonyine kandi iyobowe nabi yari yagumye mu birindiro byayo yicecekeye hafi umunsi wose. Ahagana mu Gasyata, Inzirabwoba za 61ème Bataillon yari iyobowe na Capitaine Prudence Nkunzuwimye zaje ziva muri OPS Rulindo yari iyobowe na Lieutenant Colonel BEM Antoine Sebahire ku ya 8 Mata 1994 nyuma ya saa sita. Zashinze ibirindiro i Karuruma hafi y'uruganda rwa gasegereti ruhari, zirebana n'ingabo za FPR zari zimaze hafi amasaha 24 zikomeza ibirindiro byazo.

Ku Kacyiru, ingabo za FPR zarasaga ibisasu bya mortiers/mortars ku kigo cya Gendarmerie guhera mu gitondo cy'itariki ya 8 Mata 1994. Mu ijoro ry'iya 8 rishyira iya 9 Mata 1994, ingabo za FPR zavaga ahagana i Nyarutarama zegereye icyo kigo cya Kacyiru ziteguye kukigabaho igitero simusiga. Ingabo za FPR zari ziziko icyo gitero cyiza kuzorohera kuko byavugwaga ko abajandarume batamenyereye urugamba.

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Abasirikare ba MINUAR bararebereye gusa, ntabwo bigeze bashaka kujya hagati y'abarwanaga

Ku ya 9 Mata 1994, mu rukerera ingabo za FPR zagabye igitero simusiga ku bajandarume ba Camp Kacyiru. Ariko abajandarume bari muri icyo kigo cyari kiyobowe na Lieutenant Colonel GD JMV Nzapfakumunsi, bashoboye kwirwanaho bahagarika ibitero byose by'ingabo za FPR ariko ntibashobora kuzirukana ngo bazisubize inyuma. Byabaye ngombwa ko ubuyobozi bw'akarere k'imirwano ka Kigali bwohereza Compagnies ebyiri za Bataillon Commando Huye ziturutse kuri Mont Kigali gufasha abajandarume ba Camp Kacyiru. Ahagana nyuma ya saa sita abakomando ba Bn Cdo Huye bagabye igitero bashobora gusunika ingabo za FPR barazirukana, ariko byabaye ngombwa ko abajandarume bose bagombaga kwiyegeranyiriza mu kigo cyabo kugira ngo bashobore kukirinda barinde n'imiryango yabo yabaga muri icyo kigo. Muri uko kwiyegeranyiriza mu kigo basize agace ka za Minstères na village urugwiro ntawe uharinze hafatwa n'ingabo za FPR zitarwanye. Abajandarume bakoraga akazi gasanzwe nk'ubugenzacyaha, umutekano wo mu muhanda n'ibindi.. byabaye ngombwa ko bisuganya kugirango birwaneho, ndetse abandi bajandarume baturutse mu yindi mitwe ya jandarumori nka Groupe mobile, Groupement Kibuye na Butare baje gutera bagenzi babo ingabo mu bitugu bashobora kwirwanaho bahagarika ibitero byose bya FPR. Haje kuza abasirikare ba Bataillon LAA bafashaga abo bajandarume kwirwanaho bakoresheje Canon Bi-tubes 37mm. Ikigo cya Kacyiru n'uduce tuhegereye twabaye isibaniro ry'imirwano ikomeye kugeza mu ijoro ry'iya 3 rishyira iya 4 Nyakanga 1994 ubwo Inzirabwoba zasohokaga mu mujyi wa Kigali. (Muri iyo ntambara yo ku Kacyiru haguye inkotanyi nyinshi ndetse n'abajandarume navuga nka Major GD Pierre Damien Burakari.)

Ku itariki ya 9 Mata 1994, kure gato ahagana i Byumba, ingabo za FPR zateye inkambi ya Nyacyonga yarimo abavamywe mu byabo bagera hafi ku 500.000, i Nyacyonga hari hiyegeranyirije abantu benshi bahungaga bava mu nkambi nto zindi ndetse no muri zone Tempo. Ingabo za FPR zarashe mu kivunge cy'abo bavanywe mu byabo. Abo baturage bagerageje guhunga berekeza mu gace kari mu maboko y'Inzirabwoba. Mu guhunga abo baturage berekeza i Kigali baguye ku birindiro by'ingabo za FPR zari ahagana i Kabuye, ariko kubera ubwinshi bwabo bashoboye guhita abandi bagenda bihisha mu gishanga cya Nyabugogo bagera mu mujyi wa Kigali. Abandi bashoboye guhunga bagana mu duce twari mu maboko y'Inzirabwoba za OPS Rulindo mu guhunga bahinguka mu makomini ya Perefegitura ya Gitarama y'uburasirazuba, bagerayo bananiwe, bashonje ndetse bahahamutse.

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Abasirikare b'inzirabwoba barimo gukoresha Mitrailleuse Lourde 12,7mm

Tariki ya 10 Mata 1994 ahagana ku Kimihurura ntabwo ibintu byari byahindutse. Ariko ahagana ku Kicukiro na Remera, ingabo za FPR zashyize ingufu nyinshi mu gufata amahuriro y'imihanda ya Sonatube. (muri ibyo bitero byo hafi ya Sonatube niho imodoka yarimo Lieutenant Colonel Dr Kazenga yarashwe maze arakomereka ndetse aza no kwitaba Imana nyuma yaho.)

Ahagana mu majyepfo y'umujyi wa Kigali, hari harimo gutangira urundi rugamba ku musozi wa Rebero, aho ingabo za FPR zageze zifashijwe n'ingabo za MINUAR. Ahagana tariki ya 10 Mata 1994 mu mugoroba, umurongo w'abasirikare ba FPR bagaragaye ahagana Kimisange bikoreye ibintu byinshi bazamuka umusozi wa Rebero, ku buryo n'abantu bari mu biro bya Etat-Major y'ingabo bashoboraga kubona uwo murongo. Abo basirikare ba FPR berekeje ku musozi wa Rebero ahari abasirikare b'Inzirabwoba baterenga 15 bo muri Bataillon LAA (Light Anti Aircraft) bakoreshaga imbunda yari ihari ihanura indege (ishobora kuba yari Quadriple 14,5mm cyangwa Canon Bi-tube 37mm). Abo basirikare ba FPR biyegeranirije munsi y'umusozi wa Rebero maze mu rukerera rwo ku ya 11 Mata 1994 batera Rebero barayifata. Inzirabwoba zari zihari zirwanyeho gato mbere yo gusubira inyuma.

Kubera imirwano yari itangiye gukomera i Kigali, tariki ya 10 Mata 1994 Etat-Major y'Inzirabwoba yavanye 1er Bataillon Muvumba yari iyobowe na Major BEM Emmanuel Neretse muri OPS Ruhengeri iyohereza i Kigali. Compagnies ebyeri zoherejwe ku i Rebero, Compagnie imwe yoherezwa ku musozi wa Jali.

Ahagana nyuma ya saa sita ku ya 11 Mata 1994, akarere k'imirwano ka Kigali kagabye igitero cyo gushaka kwisubiza umusozi wa Rebero. Icyo gitero cyari kigizwe na Compagnies ebyiri za 1er Bataillon Muvumba zifashijwe na Escadron imwe ya Bataillon de Reconnaissance yari ifite za Blindés za AML 90. Ariko ntabwo bashoboye kuhakura ingabo za FPR zari zamaze gushinga ibirindiro neza zanateze ibisasu byinshi bya mines kuri uwo musozi wari ufite agaciro kanini kuko wirengeye Kigali yose.

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Col Fred Nyamurangwa yari ayoboye ingabo za FPR ku musozi wa Rebero

Mu minsi yakurikiyeho, ingabo za FPR za 59th Mobile ziyobowe na Lieutenant Colonel Fred Nyamurangwa zavaga muri CND zashoboye gushakisha inzira mu birindiro by'Inzirabwoba zikajya ku musozi wa Rebero ziciye ku Kicukiro na Gikondo.

Mu Gatsata, igice cy'Inzirabwoba za 1er Bataillon Muvumba zari zoherejwe i Jali ntabwo zashoboye kugerayo kuko ingabo za FPR zari Karuruma zazirasheho ndetse zangiza n'imodoka y'imbere bituma abo basirikare ba 1er Bn Muvumba bagaruka i Kigali mu mujyi.

Ingabo za FPR za Bravo Mobile Group ya Colonel Twahirwa Dodo ifatanije n'abasirikare bamwe ba 101st Mobile Group ya Colonel Charles Muhire zateye Jali izindi zitera Inzirabwoba za 61ème Bataillon zari Karuruma.

Inzirabwoba zihagazeho karahava ariko ntabwo zashobora guhagarika inkotanyi zabarushaga umubare hafi inshuro 3. Ingabo za FPR zashoboye gusunika Inzirabwoba zifata ibigega cya Gatsata n'agace ka Gatsata ku buryo mu mugoroba w'uwo munsi Inkotanyi zari hafi gufata amahuriro y'imihanda ya Nyabugogo. Ndetse zinarasa zikoresheje za Mortier/Mortar na za Mitrailleuses/machine gun ku duce twa Muhima na Kimisigara.

Inzirabwoba zashoboye kwihagararaho amahuriro y'imihanda ya Nyabugogo ntiyafatwa cyane cyane zikoresheje imbunda za Mitrailleuses/machine gun 12,7mm zari ku Kimisagara kuri Electrogaz na za Mortiers/mortars zari kuri Mont Kigali ndetse na Canon Bi-tubes 37mm ya Bataillon LAA yari kuri MINIPLAN ku Muhima hafi y'ishuri rya APACOPE.

Abajandarume b'i Jali ntabwo bashoboye kubona ubufasha, birwanyeho kugeza ku ya 20 Mata 1994 ubwo ako gace kagwaga mu maboko ya FPR.

Tariki ya 12 Mata 1994, kubera ko Ingabo za FPR zari zafashe Rebero, ibisasu by'amoko yose byituraga ku duce twose tw'umujyi wa Kigali ndetse n'uko ingabo za FPR zari zugarije amahuriro y'imihanda ya Nyabugogo, Leta yari yiyise iy'Abatabazi yavuye mu mujyi wa Kigali yimukira i Murambi i Gitarama. Kandi ingabo za FPR za mobile Bravo, 59th, 101st, zari zageze mu mujyi wa Kigali zihasanga Alpha na Bataillon ya 3 ndetse n'abandi basirikare benshi ba FPR bari baracengeye zishaka gufata umujyi ma Kigali.
Imirwano ikomeye yabereye ku Kagugu na Gisozi aho Bataillon de Reconnaissance yatakaje Blindé yo mu bwoko bwa AML 60 cyangwa AML 90. Byabaye ngombwa ko Ingabo za FPR zamanukaga ku Gisozi zigana mu mujyi wa Kigali zihagarikwa n'ibitero bya za Kajugujugu 2 zo mu bwoko bwa Gazelle z'Inzirabwoba zarashe ibisasu bya roquettes kuri izo ngabo.

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Byabaye ngombwa ko Inzirabwoba zitabaza za Kajugujugu 2 zo mu bwoko bwa Gazelle kugirango zihagarike ingabo za FPR zavaga ku Gisozi zerekeza mu mujyi

Radio RTLM nayo yarashwe n'Ingabo za FPR bivugwa ko zari ku Gisozi. Icyo gihe Inzirabwoba zarashe bikomeye inzu ya CND ndetse n'umusozi wa Rebero zikoresheje imbunda ziremereye nka za Howitzer 105mm na Howitzer 122mm ndetse zakoreshaga na LMR 107mm Katiyusha yarasiraga hafi y'ikibuga cy'indege i Kanombe irasa mu duce twa Remera.

Ku mugoroba wa tariki ya 12 Mata 1994, uwari Umugaba Mukuru w'Inzirabwoba by'agateganyo, Colonel BEM Marcel Gatsinzi wari wageze mu mujyi wa Kigali mu mugoroba wa tariki 8 Mata 1994 aturutse i Butare nawe ari mu bafashwe n'ubwoba cyangwa hari zindi mpamvu zabimuteye, yasinye itegeko risaba Etat Major y'Inzirabwoba kuva mu mujyi wa Kigali zikerekeza hakurya ya Nyabarongo i Gitarama. Etat Major ngo yagombaga kujya ku Kamonyi, Base AR ikajya i Musambira, naho ibitaro bya gisirikare bya Kanombe bikajya i Kabuga.

Iryo tegeko ryanze gukurikizwa kuko Colonel BEM Gatsinzi yafashe icyo cyemezo ntawe agishije inama byaba ibiro bya G2 cyangwa G3 nta n'umwe wari ubizi. Iryo tegeko ryakuweho tariki ya 13 Mata 1994 mu rukerera kuko iryo tegeko ryari gutuma Inzirabwoba zitarwana uko bikwiye mu mujyi wa Kigali mu gihe Etat-Major yari kuba ihavuye kimwe n'indi mitwe y'ingabo. Kandi byari ugusiga abaturage bari batuye mu mujyi wa Kigali bonyine mu kangaratete.

 

FPR mu gushyira amananiza mu mishyikirano

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Ubugambanyi bwa bamwe mu Nzirabwoba buri mu byafashije FPR gufata ubutegetsi. Uvuye ibumoso ugana i buryo Gen Gatsinzi, Gen Dallaire, Gen Mugambage

Colonel BEM Gatsinzi wari Umugaba w'Ingabo w'agateganyo, yatangiye imirimo ye mu mugoroba wo ku ya 8 Mata 1994. Yinjiye muri Kigali ari kumwe na Perezida Théodore Sindikubwabo wari umaze gusimbura Perezida Habyalimana wari witabye Imana ku ya 6 Mata 1994. Guverinoma yari yiyise iy'abatabazi yari iyobowe na Bwana Jean Kambanda yarahiye ku ya 9 Mata 1994, ariko ibintu byarushaga kumera nabi mu mujyi wa Kigali.

Kuva ku ya 7 Mata 1994, umutekano wari muke mu duce twinshi tw'umujyi wa Kigali, hari ubwicanyi, bwibasiye abaturage cyane cyane abatutsi n'abanyapolitiki kimwe n'isubiranamo hagati y'abaturage byaba bishingiye ku bwoko cyangwa ku zindi nzangano zisanzwe, ibyo byajyanaga n'ibikorwa by'ubusahuzi. Ako kaduruvayo katerwaga kenshi n'insoresore z'amashyaka ya politiki yari yivanze n'abagizi ba nabi b'amoko yose ndetse bari banihishemo abasirikare ba FPR bari bashinze za bariyeri baka ibyangombwa abahise bose n'abasirikare b'Inzirabwoba bakwaga ibyangombwa ndetse hari n'abasirikare benshi bagiye bicwa n'abo bagizi ba nabi. Ibi byateye akaduruvayo kenshi mu ruhande rwagenzurwaga n'Inzirabwoba bituma bizibangamira bikomeye mu mirwano zarwanaga n'ingabo za FPR.

Ubwicanyi bwibasiraga abaturage b'abatutsi, ndetse n'abaturage bandi b'abahutu, abasirikare ba FPR bari baracegeye mu baturage nabo bagiye bashyira mu kaga abatutsi babaga babacumbikiye, hiyongereyeho ko abo bagizi ba nabi basubiranagamo muri ubwo bwicanyi bakoraga akenshi bapfuye ibintu basahuye.

Abasirikare b'Inzirabwoba bamwe bagiye muri ibyo bikorwa ariko muri rusange abo basirikare bitwaye neza. Ibyo bikorwa by'urugomo byari mu gihugu cyose ndetse n'ingabo za FPR zagabaga ibitero byabangamiye cyane Inzirabwoba, kuko benshi mu basirikare basabaga impushya ndetse hakagira abatoroka kugira ngo bajye guhungisha imiryango yabo cyangwa bajye kuyirindira umutekano aho bakomokaga mu giturage kuko guca ku ma bariyeri byari bigoye cyane cyane kuri bamwe muri bo babaga barashakanye n'abatutsikazi. Ntawakwibagirwa kuvuga ko ahantu henshi hari harahungiye abaturage b'abatutsi, bagiye bashyirwa mu kaga n'abasirikare ba FPR ndetse n'abakada babaga barabacengeyemo bafite intwaro.

Kugerageza kugarura umutekano mu gihugu ku nzirabwoba byari bigoye kubera ko Ingabo za FPR zari zikomeje ibitero, akaduruvayo katurukaga ku mashyaka ya politiki kari gakomeye kuva muri za 1991, ubukene, isubiranamo rishingiye ku moko n'ibindi. Gendarmerie na Police Militaire byashoboraga gufasha kugarura umutekano ibigo byabo bya Kami na Kacyiru byari batewe n'ingabo za FPR.

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Gen Kagame ntako batamugize ngo yemere imishyikirano ariko yanga kuva kw'izima

Kuva ku itariki ya 10 Mata 1994, ubuyobozi bw'ingabo bwageragezaga kwegeranya amakuru ngo burebe ibyakorwa ngo ubwicanyi bwari mu gihugu hose buhagarare ndetse bashobore no guhangana n'ingabo za FPR zakomezaga gukaza umurego, ariko nk'uko twabivuze haruguru byari bigoye cyane kuko kugirango ubwicanyi buhagarare byasabaga ko hoherezwa ingabo n'abajandarume muri utwo duce. Ntabwo byari byoroshye kuko izo ngabo n'abajandarume bari bahanganye n'ingabo za FPR ku rugamba. Kuba Inzirabwoba zari ziyobowe n'abasirikare bakuru basa nk'abitinya badashaka kugira icyemezo bafata gikomeye byateye ingaruka nini. Urupfu rwa Général Major BEM Nsabimana, kuba Général de Brigade I.G. Gratien Kabiligi na Colonel BEMSG Aloys Ntiwiragabo bari mu butumwa bw'akazi biri mu byashegeshe Inzirabwoba. Hari amakuru yemeza ko iyo ubuyobozi bukuru bw'ingabo budahindurwa ngo hajyeho umugaba mukuru mushya Général Major BEM Augustin Bizimungu na Général de Brigade I.G. Kabiligi agaruke mu Rwanda ahagana mu matariki ya 20 Mata 1994, Kigali iba yarafashwe n'ingabo za FPR bitarenze ukwezi kwa Mata 1994.

Muri icyo gihe inzira yonyine yari isigaye ku Nzirabwoba yari gusaba ko habaho guhagarika imirwano kugira ngo hashobore kuboneka abasirikare n'abajandarume bo kugarura umutekano. Colonel BEM Marcel Gatsinzi yagerageje gusaba ihagarikwa ry'imirwano asabye Général Roméo Dallaire ko yabwira FPR igahagarika ibitero.

Ku ya 12 Mata 1994, Ubuyobozi bw'Inzirabwoba bwasabye kugirana imishyikirano yo guhagarika imirwano na FPR kugira ngo bigire hamwe uburyo bwo kugarura umutekano mu gihugu. Kubera ukuntu FPR yabonaga irimo yegera imbere ntabwo yifuzaga ko habaho ayo masezerano ahubwo yiguzaga ko hakomeza kubaho akaduruvayo mu karere kari mu maboko y'Inzirabwoba kugirango ibone urwitwazo ndetse ibone icyo yereka amahanga.

Mu itangazo Inzirabwoba zasohoye ku itariki ya 12 Mata 1994, zasabaga ko imirwano yahagarara ku va ku ya 13 Mata 1994 saa sita z'amanywa. Ibyo ntabwo byubahirijwe kuko imirwano yarakomeje.

Gen Bizimungu yagizwe umugaba mukuru w'Inzirabwoba asanga ibintu byaradogereye

Ku ya 15 Mata 1994, habayeho ibiganiro hagati y'abari bahagarariye Inzirabwoba na FPR byari bihagarariwe na Bwana Jacques Roger Booh-Booh wari uhagarariye umunyamabanga Mukuru w'Umuryango w'abibumbye mu Rwanda. Icyo FPR yasabaga ni uko ngo habaho guhagarika ubwicanyi mu karere kari mu maboko y'Inzirabwoba mbere yo kwemera guhagarika imirwano. Ibyo byari bigoye kuko abasirikare n'abajandarume bagombaga kujya muri icyo gikorwa cyo guhagarika ubwicanyi bagombaga kuva mu birindiro byabo ku buryo byari guhita bifatwa n'ingabo za FPR tutibagiwe ko FPR yo yari ikomeje ubwicanyi mu karere kari mu maboko yayo. Inzirabwoba zakomeje gusaba imishyikirano ariko FPR kuko yabonaga guhagarika imirwano byazana amahoro kandi FPR yari izi neza ko itashobora gufata ubutegetsi biciye mu nzira y'amahoro yarabyanze. Byageze n'aho Etat-Major y'Inzirabwoba isaba ko habaho amarondo agamije guhagarika ubwicanyi yari kuba agizwe na MINUAR-Inzirabwoba-Inkotanyi, ariko ibi byose FPR yarabyanze.

Ku ya 16 Mata 1994, Leta y'Abatabazi yashatse kwiminjiramo agafu maze iha abasirikare bakuru amapeti ya Jenerali.
Muri bo harimo:

-Général Major BEM Augustin Bizimungu wari umukuru w'akarere k'imirwano ka Ruhengeri wahise ugirwa umugaba mukuru w'ingabo ku itariki 17 Mata 1994.

-Général de Brigade I.G. Gratien Kabiligi wari ushinzwe imirwano muri Etat Major y'ingabo (G3)

-Général de Brigade Léonidas Rusatira wari umukuru w'ishuri rikuru rya gisirikare ESM. Yaje kwishyira mu maboko ya FPR ipeti rya Général araryamburwa kugeza aho ahungiye ntabwo yongeye kurisubirana.

-Général de Brigade BEM Marcel Gatsinzi wari wahariwe akazi ko kugerageza kumvikana na FPR.

 

Biracyaza…………

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